Java Syntax

Java Program Structure
Java program structure / Java Syntax   
> Download Java Software (JDK) and Install

> Set Environment (Path) Variable to access Java Run -time Environment from any directory in C drive.

> Download Eclipse software

C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0_40\bin - Java path

C:\Users\G C Reddy\Desktop\eclipse -Eclipse

How Eclipse communicates with Java Run-time Environment

Using Path Environment variable
Java Programming
Java Project
    -> Packages
        -> Classes, Interfaces etc...

> Create Java Project in Eclipse

> Create a package

> Create a Class
Sample Java Program
1) Package Declaration statement
package abcd;
2) Import Statements
We can import built in and User defined Libraries using import keyword.

Examples for Built in packages

io, jxl, sql etc...


import java.lang.*;

import is java keyword to import Libraries

java - Project

io - package

Console - Class

lang.* - all classes from lang package
3) Class declaration statement
public class Sample {

public - Access Modifier

class - java keyword to declare a class

Sample - Name of the class
4) Comments section

// This is a Sample Java Program

5) main method statement - Program execution starts from main method
(* It is the mandatory statement in every Java program)

public static void main (String [] args){

public - Access Modifier

static - use main method without invoking any object

void - returns nothing

main method name

6) Declarations
We can declare variables and constants
System.out.println ("Addition of a, b, c is: "+ (a+b+c));

System - Class

out - Object

println - method

"Addition of a, b, c is: " - Message / Details

+ - Concatenation

a, b, c, d -Variables

Conditional statements
Loop statements
Built in and user defined methodsOperators etc....
Writing Normal statements - every statement should end with ;

Writing blocks - Statements of the block enclosed {}
Java Program Example:

package abcd;

import java.lang.*;
public class Sample {
    // This is a Sample Java Program
public static void main (String [] args){
    int a = 10, b, c; // Declartion of Variables
    b= 20; // Initialization
        System.out.println (a+b);
    a = 50;
    final int MONEY = 100; // declaring constant
    // MONEY = 200;
    System.out.println ("Addition of a, b, is: "+ (a+b));

    if (b > a){
        System.out.println ("B is a Big Number");
        System.out.println ("A is a Big Number");
for (c=1; c <= 10; c++){
    System.out.println (c);
Java Comments
Comments are English word, can be used for code documentation.

Purpose of Comments:
a) To make the code Readable

b) To make the code disable from execution

Comments Syntax in Java:
Use // for Single line comment

Use /*....
*/ for multiple lines comment

int a = 10, b, c; // Declaration of Variables

// public static void main (String [] args){

/* if (b > a){
        System.out.println ("B is a Big Number");
        System.out.println ("A is a Big Number");

Usage of Comments in Test Automation:
a) To write Test headers

b) To write method headers

c) To explain complex logic

d) To explain resource usage
Java Data Types

What is Data Type?

Data type is a classification of the type of data that a variable or object can hold in computer programming.

Ex: character, integer, float etc....

> Java supports explicit declaration of Data types.
(we need to specify the data type before declaring the Variable)

Syntax:data_type variable_name;

data_type variable_name = value;

Example:int a;

int a = 100;
Two types of Data types in java
a) Primitive Data types

b) Non-primitive Data types / Reference Data types
a) Primitive Data types8 primitive data types

Integer types
1) byte (8 bits)


byte a =100;

2) short (16 bits)

short a = 10000;

3) int (32 bits)

int a = 100000;

4) long (64 bits)

long a = 100000L
Rational types (Numbers with decimal places)
5) float (32 bits)

float a = 1.2;

6) double (64 bits)
double a = 19.3456;
7) char (16 bits)


char a ='Z'
8) boolean (undefined, depends on JVM)

boolean a = true
b) Non-primitive / Reference data types 

Non-primitive data types in Java are Objects and Arrays.


Reference types are not passed value, passed by reference


Button a = new Button("OK")
Java Variables

1) What is Variable?
A named memory location to store or hold the data.

Two types of memory in Computer environment:

i) Primary memory -RAM

ii) Secondary memory -ROM
Ex: CD, DVD, HDD etc...
2) Declaration of Variables
Java Supports explicit declaration of variables


dataType VariableName;


int a;
dataType variable1, variable2, variable3;


int a, b, c;
dataType VariableName = value;


int a =100;
3) Assigning values to variables
a) Initialization

int a;
a=10; // Initialization
int a=10; // Initialization
b) Reading
    using Input devices
    from files(text/excel)
    from databases
    from Application objects
4) Types of Variables
a) Instance Variable
A variable that is declared inside the class but outside the method

b) Local variable
A variable that is declared inside the method

c) Static variables
A Variable that is declared as static, It cannot be local.
5) Naming Conventions
> Java Variables are case sensitive, monkey is not the as Monkey or MONKEY.

char monkey, Monkey, MONKEY

> Java variable name must start with a letter or $ or _

1myvar - invalid
> Variable names cannot be equal to java reserved words



> Must be unique in the scope of declaration.


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