Manual Testing and QA Interview Questions

Software Testing
Manual Testing and QA Interview Questions

1) How to Conduct Software Testing?

> Software Testing can be done in two ways one is Manual Testing another is Test Automation or Automated Testing.

> Testing Computer software manually in order to find defects without using Test Tool or Automation Scripts is called Manual Testing.

> Testing Computer Software by using Test Tool or Automation Script is called as Automated Testing or Test Automation.
2) What are SDLC Models?

We have so many SDLC models available in the IT industry, we can segregate them in to two categories.

a) Sequential Models (Waterfall, V Model etc...)
b) Incremental / Iterative models (Spiral model, Agile models etc...) 
3) What are Software Test Levels?

We have Four levels of Testing for General or independent Software Applications 

i) Unit Testing Testing of individual software components.
Testers: Developers

ii) Integration Testing 
Testing integration or interfaces between components, interactions to different parts of the system such as an operating system, file system and hardware.
Testers: Developers or Independent Testers

iii) System Testing 
Testing an integrated System to verify that it meets specified requirements.
Testers: Independent Testers

iv) Acceptance Testing
User Acceptance Testing 
Testers: Customers /End users

Operational Acceptance Testing
System Administration staff.

Certification Testing
Testers: Certified Testers

For distributed Software applications 5 levels of Testing

i) Unit Testing
ii) Component Integration Testing
iii) System Testing
iv) System Integration Testing
v) Acceptance Testing
4) What are Software Test Types?

We have Four Test Types in Software Testing, but Two categories / Types are Important,

i) Functional Testing
        Functionality Testing
        Security Testing

ii) Non Functional Testing
         Performance Testing
         Usability Testing
         Configuration Testing
         Reliability Testing
         Recovery Testing
         Localization Testing etc...
5) What are Software Test Design Techniques?

Basically, Software Test Design Techniques are Two Types,

i) Static Techniques

Static testing is the testing of the software work products manually, or with a set of tools, but they are not executed.
Example: Reviews, Walk trough, Inspection etc...

ii) Dynamic Techniques

> Testing that involves the execution of the software of a component or system.

a) White box Test design techniques    
    Statement testing
    Condition testing
    Decision testing etc...

b) Black box Test design techniques    
    Equivalence partitioning / Equivalent Classes
    Boundary Value Analysis
    Decision tables
    State transition Testing
    Use case Testing etc...

c) Experience based Techniques    
    Error Guessing
    Exploratory Testing etc...
6) What is Software Test Process or Software Test Life Cycle?

Four Important Phases of Software Test process / Software Test Life Cycle.

i) Test Planning

    Understanding and Analyzing the Requirements
    Risk Analysis
    Test Strategy implementations
    Test Estimations(Scope, Time, Available resources, Budget etc...)
    Team formation
    Test plan documentation
    Configuration management planning
    Creating RTM document
    Define Test Environment Setup

ii) Test Design
    Understanding Requirements
    Creating Test Scenarios
    Test Case documentation
    Test Data collection

iii) Test Execution
    Verify Test Environment setup
    Create test batches
    Test Execution
        Smoke Testing /BVT/BAT 
        Comprehensive Testing
        Defect Reporting
        Defect Tracking
        Select Test cases for Regression Testing
        Sanity Testing
        Regression testing cycle 1
        Defect Reporting
        Defect Tracking
        Select Test cases for Regression Testing
        Sanity Testing
        Regression testing cycle 2
        Final Regression

iv) Test Closure             
    Collect all Artifacts
    Evaluate the Exit Criteria
    Test Summary Report
    Sending Test deliverables to customer
    Improvement suggestions for future projects.
7) What are Software Quality Standards?
    ISO (Terminology, Process guidelines etc...)
    IEEE (Terminology, Test Documentation standards)
    CMM/CMMI (Process)
8) What are Software Test Documents?

i) Test Policy
A high level (company level) document describes principles, approach and major objectives of the organization regarding Testing.

ii) Test Strategy
A high level document of the Test Levels to be performed and the Testing within those levels for an Organization.

iii) Test Plan
A document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of intended activities.

iv) Test Scenario
An item or event of a component or system that could be verified by one or more Test cases.

v) Test Case
A set of input values, execution preconditions, expected result and execution post conditions developed for a particular objective or Test condition.

vi) Test Data
Data that exits before a test is executed and that effects or is effected by the component or System under test.

vii) Defect Report
A document reporting of ant flaw in a component or System that can cause the component or system to fail to perform its required function.

viii) Test Summary Report
A document summarizing testing activities and Result. It also contains evaluation of the corresponding test items against exit criteria.
9) Explain about the Domain Knowledge for Software Testers?

i) BFSI (Banking, Financial Services and Insurance)
ii) ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)
iii) Telecom
iv) Healthcare
v) Ecommerce
vi) Retail Market
Others (System Software, Games, Documentation software etc...)
10) Explain about the Programming Knowledge for Software Testers.

Basically Software Testing Can be done in 2 ways,
i) Manual Testing
ii) Test Automation or Automated Testing

For Manual Testing no programming knowledge is required,
But for Test Automation Programming knowledge is required,

Data Types, Modifiers, Variables, Operators, Conditional & Loop Statements, Strings, Arrays, File Handling,
Functions / Methods, Exception Handling, OOPS- Inheritance, Polymorphism, Abstraction, and Encapsulation.
Also Watch:

1) Manual Testing Step by Step Videos

2) Selenium Step by Step Videos

3) UFT / QTP Step by Step Videos


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