Manual Testing Lesson 2 – Overview of Manual Testing

1) Software Development Life Cycle
2) SDLC Models
3) Software Test Levels
4) Software Test Types
5) Software Test Design Techniques
6) Software Test Process / STLC
7) Software Quality Standards
8) Software Test Documents

1) Software Development Life Cycle

> Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a process used by the software industry to design, develop, test and maintain quality software. It is also called Software Development Process.

Phases of Software Development Life Cycle   (SDLC),
i) Requirement Gathering and Analysis
ii) System Design
iii) Implementation or Coding
iv) Integration and Testing
v) Deployment
vi) Maintenance
Note: Phase Names and No of phases may vary from one SDLC Model to another and one company to another

2) Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Models

We have so many SDLC models available in the IT industry, Incremental Models, Iterative Models etc., Popular Software Development Process Models are,

i) Waterfall Model
ii) V Model
iii) Prototype Model
iv) Spiral Model
v) Agile Development Models
Etc…

3) Software Test Levels

We have Four Levels of Testing for General or Independent Software Applications and Testers may vary from One Test Level to another.

i) Unit Testing
Testing of individual software components.
Testers: Developers

ii) Integration Testing
Testing integration or interfaces between components, interactions to different parts of the system such as an operating system, file system and hardware.
Testers: Developers or Independent Testers

iii) System Testing
Testing an integrated System to verify that it meets specified requirements.
Testers: Independent Testers

iv) Acceptance Testing
We have different types of Acceptance Testing, User Acceptance Testing, Operational Acceptance Testing and Certification Testing.
a) User Acceptance Testing
Testers: Customers /End users

b) Operational Acceptance Testing
Testers: System Administration staff.

c) Certification Testing
Testers: Certified Testers

For distributed Software Applications we have Five levels of Testing
i) Unit Testing
ii) Component Integration Testing
iii) System Testing
iv) System Integration Testing
v) Acceptance Testing

4) Software Test Types

i) Functional Testing
Functionality Testing
Security Testing

ii) Non Functional Testing
Performance Testing
Usability Testing
Configuration Testing
Reliability Testing
Recovery Testing
Localization Testing etc…

iii) Structural Testing

iv) Change Related Testing

5) Software Test Design Techniques

i) Static Techniques
Static testing is the testing of the software work products manually, or with a set of tools, but they are not executed.

Example: Reviews, Walk trough, Inspection etc…

ii) Dynamic Techniques
> Testing that involves the execution of the software of a component or system.

a) White box Test design techniques
Statement testing
Condition testing
Decision testing etc…

b) Black box Test design techniques
Equivalence partitioning / Equivalent Classes
Boundary Value Analysis
Decision tables
State transition Testing
Use case Testing etc…

Manual Testing Tutorial for Beginners

c) Experience based Techniques
Error Guessing
Exploratory Testing etc…

6) Software Test Process / Software Testing Life Cycle

Phases of Software Test Process or Software Testing Life Cycle,
i) Test Planning
a) Input or References,
Requirements
Project plan
Test Strategy
———–
Design Documents
Corporate standards documents
Process guideline docs
etc…

b) Tasks
Understanding and Analyzing the Requirements
Risk Analysis
Test Strategy implementations
Test Estimations(Scope, Time, Available resources, Budget etc…)
Team formation
Test plan documentation
Configuration management planning
Creating RTM document
Define Test Environment Setup

c) Output
Test Plan document

ii) Test Design
a) Input or References
Requirements
Test Plan
————-
Design Documents
Corporate standards documents
Process guideline docs
etc…
—————-
Test Case template
Test Data template

b) Tasks
Understanding Requirements
Creating Test Scenarios
Test Case documentation
Test Data collection

c) Output
Test Case documents
Test data

iii) Test Execution
a) Input/references
Requirements
Test Plan
Test Case documents
Test Data
—————
Defect Report template
—————-
Readiness of Test Lab / Test environment
Readiness of AUT
—————
b) Tasks
Verify Test Environment setup
Create test batches
Test Execution
Smoke Testing /BVT/BAT
Comprehensive Testing
Defect Reporting
Defect Tracking
Select Test cases for Regression Testing
Sanity Testing
Regression testing cycle 1
Defect Reporting
Defect Tracking
Select Test cases for Regression Testing
Sanity Testing
Regression testing cycle 2
.
.
.
Final Regression

c) Output
Opened and Closed Defect Reports
Tested Software

iv) Test Closure
a) Input or References
Requirements
Test plan
Opened and Closed Defect Reports
etc…
—————–
Test Summary Report template
———-
b) Tasks
Collect all Artifacts
Evaluate the Exit Criteria
Test Summary Report
Sending Test deliverables to customer
Improvement suggestions for future projects.

7) Software Quality Standards

i) ISO (Terminology, Process Guidelines etc…)
ii) IEEE (Terminology, Test Documentation Standards etc…)
iii) CMM/CMMI (Process)

8) Software Test Documents

i) Test Policy
A high level (company level) document describes principles, approach and major objectives of the organization regarding Testing.

ii) Test Strategy
A high level document of the Test Levels to be performed and the Testing within those levels for an Organization.

iii) Test Plan
A document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of intended activities.

iv) Test Scenario
An item or event of a component or system that could be verified by one or more Test cases.

v) Test Case
A set of input values, execution preconditions, expected result and execution post conditions developed for a particular objective or Test condition.

vi) Test Data
Data that exits before a test is executed and that effects or is effected by the component or System under test.

vii) Defect Report
A document reporting of ant flaw in a component or System that can cause the component or system to fail to perform its required function.

viii) Test Summary Report
A document summarizing testing activities and Result. It also contains evaluation of the corresponding test items against exit criteria.
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