Security Testing Interview Questions and Answers
1) What is Security?
Security is set of measures to protect an application against unforeseen actions that cause it to stop functioning or being exploited.
Unforeseen actions can be either intentional or unintentional.
2) What is Security Testing?
Security Testing is a type of software testing that intends to uncover vulnerabilities of the system and determine that its data and resources are protected from possible intruders.
The goal of security testing is to identify the threats in the system and measure its potential vulnerabilities.
It also helps in detecting all possible security risks in the system and help developers in fixing these problems through coding.
3) What is Vulnerability?
This is a weakness in the web application. The cause of such a “weakness” can be bugs in the application, an injection (SQL/ script code) or the presence of viruses.
4) What is a Bug?
A fault in a program which causes the program to perform in an unintended or unanticipated manner.
5) What are the main focus areas to be considered in Security Testing?
There are four main focus areas to be considered in security testing (Especially for web sites/applications):
• Network security: This involves looking for vulnerabilities in the network infrastructure (resources and policies).
• System software security: This involves assessing weaknesses in the various software (operating system, database system, and other software) the application depends on.
• Client-side application security: This deals with ensuring that the client (browser or any such tool) cannot be manipulated.
• Server-side application security: This involves making sure that the server code and its technologies are robust enough to fend off any intrusion.
6) Give an example of a basic Security Test?
This is an example of a very basic security test which anyone can perform on a web site/application:
• Log into the web application.
• Log out of the web application.
• Click the BACK button of the browser (Check if you are asked to log in again or if you are provided the logged-in application)
Most types of security testing involve complex steps and out-of-the-box thinking but, sometimes, it is simple tests like the one above that help expose the most severe security risks.
7) What are the different types of security testing?
There are seven main types of security testing as per Open Source Security Testing methodology manual. They are explained as follows:
• Vulnerability Scanning: This is done through automated software to scan a system against known vulnerability signatures.
• Security Scanning: It involves identifying network and system weaknesses, and later provides solutions for reducing these risks. This scanning can be performed for both Manual and Automated scanning.
• Penetration testing: This kind of testing simulates an attack from malicious hacker. This testing involves analysis of a particular system to check for potential vulnerabilities to an external hacking attempt.
• Risk Assessment: This testing involves analysis of security risks observed in the organization. Risks are classified as Low, Medium and High. This testing recommends controls and measures to reduce the risk.
• Security Auditing: This is internal inspection of Applications and Operating systems for security flaws. Audit can also be done via line by line inspection of code
• Ethical hacking: It’s hacking an Organization Software systems. Unlike malicious hackers, who steal for their own gains, the intent is to expose security flaws in the system.
• Posture Assessment: This combines Security scanning, Ethical Hacking and Risk Assessments to show an overall security posture of an organization.
8) What are the major tables to be included in test plan?
Test plan should include,
• Security related test cases or scenarios
• Test Data related to security testing
• Test Tools required for security testing
• Analysis on various tests outputs from different security tools
9) What is tiger box penetration testing?
This testing is usually done on a laptop which has a collection of OSs and hacking tools. This testing helps penetration testers and security testers to conduct vulnerabilities assessment and attacks.
10) What is black box testing?
Tester is authorized to do testing on everything about the network topology and the technology.
11) What is grey box testing?
Partial information is given to the tester about the system, and it is hybrid of white and black box models.
12) What is Fuzz Testing?
Fuzz testing is a black box testing technique which uses a random bad data to attack a program to check if anything breaks in the application.
13) What is smoke test?
Testing the application whether it is performing its basic functionality properly or not, so that the test team can go ahead with application
14) What is the difference between verification and validation?
Verification is a review without actually executing the process while validation is checking the product with actual execution. For instance, code review and syntax check is verification while actually running the product and checking the result is validation.
15)What are different types of verifications?
• Verification is static type of s/w testing. It means code is not executed. The product is evaluated by going through the code. Types of verification are:
• Walkthrough: Walkthroughs are informal, initiated by the author of the s/w product to a colleague for assistance in locating defects or suggestions for improvements. They are usually unplanned. Author explains the product; colleague comes out with observations and author notes down relevant points and takes corrective actions.
• Inspection: Inspection is a thorough word-by-word checking of a software product with the intention of locating defects, confirming traceability of relevant requirements etc.
16) What are the myths and Facts of Security Testing?
Myth 1: We don’t need a security policy as we have a small business
Fact: Everyone and every company need a security policy
Myth 2:There is no return on investment in security testing
Fact: Security Testing can point out areas for improvement that can improve efficiency and reduce downtime, enabling maximum throughput.
Myth 3: Only way to secure is to unplug it.
Fact: The only and the best way to secure organization is to find “Perfect Security”. Perfect security can be achieved by performing posture assessment and compare with business, legal and industry justifications.
Myth 4: Internet isn’t safe. I will purchase software or hardware to safeguard the system and save business.
Fact: One of the biggest problems is to purchase software and hardware for security. Instead, organization should understand security first and then apply it.