Manual Testing Tutorial

Manual Testing Tutorial, Software Development Life Cycle, Software Test Levels, Software Test Types, and Software Test Life Cycle.

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Software Testing is the process of evaluating a system or its component(s) with the intent to find whether it satisfies the specified requirements or not.

Software Testing can be done in two ways, Manual Testing, and Automated Testing.

Some types of testing are done in both the ways like Manual Testing and Automated Testing, for Example, Functional Testing.

Some types of testing are done by only Manual Testing, for example, Usability Testing, and some testing types are done by Automated Testing only, for example, Performance Testing.

Software Testing is conducted in all four test levels, they are Unit testing, Integration testing, System Testing, and Acceptance testing.

Manual testing is a testing process that is carried out manually in order to find defects without the usage of software test tools or automation scripting.

Manual Testing Tutorial for Beginners or Fresher as well as Experienced.

Manual Testing Syllabus

1.0 Software Development Life Cycle

1.1 Requirement Gathering

1.2 Analysis

1.3 Design

1.4 Coding / Development

1.5 Testing

1.6 Deployment & Maintenance

2.0 SDLC Models

2.1 Waterfall Model

2.2 V Model

2.3 Spiral Model

2.4 Agile Model

3.0 Software Test Levels

3.1 Unit Testing

3.2 Integrating Testing

3.3 System Testing

3.4 Acceptance Testing

4.0 Software Test Types

4.1 Functional Testing

4.2 Non-functional Testing

4.3 Structural Testing

4.4 Change Related Testing

5.0 Software Test Design Techniques

5.1 Whitebox Testing

5,2 Blackbox Testing

5.3 Experience-based Testing

6.0 Software Test Life Cycle

6.1 Requirement Analysis

6.2 Test Planning

6.3 Test Design & Development

6.4 Test Environment Setup

6.5 Test Execution

6.6 Test Cycle Closure

7.0 Software Test Documents

7.1 Test Policy

7.2 Test Strategy

7.3  Test Plan Documentation

7.4 Requirements Traceability Matrix

7.5 Test Scenario

7.6 Test Case Documentation

7.7 Test Data

7.8 Test Metrics

7.9 Defect Report

7.10 Test Summary Report

8.0 Software Testing Quality Standards 

8.1 ISO Standards for Software Testing

8.2 IEEE Standards for Software Testing

9.0 Software Testing Certification

9.1 ISTQB Certification

9.2 Certified Software Tester (CSTE)

Manual Testing Tutorial for Beginners

1.0 Software Development Life Cycle

Software Development Life Cycle is also called as Software Development Process, It is a framework defining tasks performed at each step in the software development process.

Software Development Life Cycle is a process followed for a software project, within a software organization.

SDLC consists of a detailed plan describing how to develop, maintain, replace and alter or enhance specific software.

The life cycle defines a methodology for improving the quality of software and the overall development process.

A typical Software Development Life Cycle consists of Requirement Gathering, Analysis, Design, Coding / Implementation, Testing, and Deployment & Maintenance phases.

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2.1 SDLC Models – Waterfall Model

The waterfall model is a linear, sequential approach to the software development life cycle that is popular in software engineering and product development.

The waterfall model emphasizes a logical progression of steps. Similar to the direction water flows over the edge of a cliff, distinct endpoints or goals are set for each phase of development and cannot be revisited after completion.

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2.2 SDLC Models – V Model

The V-Model is an extension of the waterfall model and is based on the association of a testing phase for each corresponding development stage.

The V-model is an SDLC model where the execution of processes happens in a sequential manner in a V-shape. It is also known as the Verification and Validation model.

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2.3 SDLC Models – Spiral Model

The Spiral model is called a Meta-Model because it subsumes all the other SDLC models.

The spiral model incorporates the stepwise approach of the Classical Waterfall Model. The spiral model uses the approach of the Prototyping Model by building a prototype at the start of each phase as a risk-handling technique.

Also, the spiral model can be considered as supporting the evolutionary model – the iterations along the spiral can be considered as evolutionary levels through which the complete system is built.

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2.4 SDLC Models – Agile Model

The agile SDLC model is a combination of iterative and incremental process models with a focus on process adaptability and customer satisfaction by rapid delivery of working software products.

Agile methods are being widely accepted in the software world recently. However, this method may not always be suitable for all products.

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3.0 Software Test Levels

Test Level: A specific instantiation of a test process.

Software Test Levels are the different stages of the software development life cycle where testing is conducted.

There are four levels of software testing:

1) Unit Testing
2) Integration Testing
3) System Testing
4) Acceptance Testing

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4.0 Software Test Types

A Test type is a group of test activities aimed at testing specific characteristics of a software system, or a part of a system, based on specific test objectives. Such objectives may include:

Evaluating Functional quality characteristics, evaluating Non-functional quality characteristics, Evaluating whether the Structure or architecture of the component or system is correct, and evaluating the Effects of changes.

1. Functional Testing
2. Non-functional Testing
3. Structural Testing
4. Change-related Testing

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5.0 Software Test Design Techniques

There are two main categories of Test Design Techniques, They are:

1.0 Static Techniques
1.1 Reviews (Manual Examination)
1.2 Static Analysis (Automated Analysis)

2. Dynamic Techniques
2.1 Specification-based or Black-box Techniques
2.2 Structure-based or White-box Techniques
2.3 Experience-based Techniques

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6.0 Software Test Life Cycle

Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC) identifies what test activities to carry out and when to accomplish those test activities. Even though testing differs between organizations, there is a testing life cycle.

There are different phases in STLC which are given below:

1) Requirement Analysis
2) Test Planning
3) Test Design & Development
4) Test Environment Setup
5) Test Execution
6) Test Cycle Closure

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7.0 Software Test Documents

We create & use test documents before, during, and after Software Testing.

1. Test Policy
2. Test Strategy
3. System Test Plan
4. Requirements Traceability Matrix
5. Test Scenario
6. Test Case
7. Test Data
8. Test Metrics
9. Defect Report
10. Test Summary Report

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7.1  Test Plan Documentation

Test Plan Documentation, Test Plan vs. Test Strategy Prerequisites for Test Planning, Test Plan Template, and Test Team Job Responsibilities.

Test Plan Template:

1. Test Plan ID:
2. Introduction:
3. Test Items:
4. References:
5. Features to be Tested:
6. Features not to be Tested:
7. Test Approach:
8. Entry Criteria:
9. Exit Criteria:
10. Suspension Criteria:
11. Roles & Responsibilities
12. Schedule:
13. Training:
14. Test Environment / Lab:
15. Test Deliverables:
16. Approvals
17. Glossary:

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7.2 Test Case Documentation

Test Case Documentation, Software Test Documentation, Derive Test Scenarios, Write Test Cases, Collect Test Data, and Execute Test Cases.

Test Case Template:

1. Test Case Id: a Unique name/number (Alfa-numeric)
2. Test Case Name: Name of Test Case
3. Test Suite ID: Unique name/number (Alfa-numeric)
4. Pre-Condition: Status before Test Case Execution
5. Steps: Steps for Executing the Test Case
6. Post-Condition: Status After Test Case Execution
7. Expected Result: Expected Result as per Requirements
8. Actual Results: <After Test Case Execution>
9. Test Results: Pass/Fail <After Test Case Execution>
10. Remarks: Comments (Optional)

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7.3 Defect Report

Software Defect Reporting, Test Execution, Analyze Test Results, Find Defects, Write Defect Reports, Track Defects, and Change-related Testing.

Defect Report Template:

1. Defect Id:
2. Defect Description:
3. Test Case Id:
4. Tester:
5. Product Version:
6. Build Version:
7. Priority:
8. Severity:
9. Status:
10. Reproducible or not: Yes / No

If Reproducible:

If not Reproducible:

11. Reporting to:
12. Remarks:

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7.4 Test Metrics

Software Test Metrics Report, What is Metric?, Type of Metrics, Crucial Web Based Testing Metrics, and Software Test Metrics Life Cycle.

Test Metrics Life Cycle:

Phase 1: Analysis (Identification of Metrics, Define the identified Metrics)

Phase 2: Communication (Explain the need for Metrics to Stakeholders, Educate Testing team about the Datapoints)

Phase 3: Evaluation (Capture and Verify the Data, Calculate the Metrics)

Phase 4: Report (Develop the Report, Distribute the Report to Stakeholder, Take feedback from Stakeholder)

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7.5 Test Summary Report

A Sample Test Summary Report, Software Testing Life Cycle, Software Test Cycle closure phase, and Software Testing Documentation.

Test Summary Report Template

1.0 Introduction:
2.0 Test Items:
3.0 Reference documents
4.0 Target Audience
5.0 Test Summary
5.1 Test Suite Information:
5.2 Test Case Information:
5.3 Defect Report Information
6.0 Approvals

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8.0 Software Testing Quality Standards

Software Testing Quality Standards, ISO standards for Software quality, IEEE Test documentation standards, and Software Testing Certification.

ISO – International Organization for Standardization (1947)
IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (1963)
IEC – International Electrotechnical Commission (1906)
BS (BSI) – British Standards (1901)
CMMI– Capability Maturity Model Integration

1. IEEE 610.12-1990
2. IEEE 829-1998
3. IEEE Standard 1012-1998
4. IEEE Standard 1028-1997
5. IEEE 1008
6. IEEE 1044-1993
7. IEEE 1219-1998
8. ISO/IEC 9126-1:2001
9. ISO/IEC 12207:2008
10. ISO/IEC 14598-1:1999
11. ISO/IEC 2382-1:1993
12. ISO 9000:2000
13. BS 7925-2:1998
14. DO-178B:1992
15) BS7925-1

Software Testing Quality Standards

Manual Testing Tutorial

Advantages and Disadvantages of Manual Testing

1. No Environment Limitations
2. Programming Knowledge is not required.
3. Recommendable for Dynamically changing GUI designs.
4. Recommendable for Usability Testing.

1. Less Accuracy
2. Performance testing is impractical in Manual testing.
3. Comparing a large amount of data is impractical.
4. Manual Testing requires more time or more resources, sometimes both Time and Resources.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Manual Testing


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