Database Fundamentals

Relational Database Fundamentals, Database Object, What is Database?, Database server, Database Management System, and Types of Databases.

SQL or Relational Database Fundamentals for Database Developers, Database Administrators, and Database Testers.

Database Fundamentals

1. What is Data?

In computing, data is information that has been translated into a form that is efficient for movement or processing.

Data is defined as facts or figures, or information that’s stored in or used by a computer.

2. What is a Database?

• A Database is a systematic collection of data.
• Databases support storage and manipulation of data
• Databases make data management easy.

3. Database Objects in Relational databases

A database object in a relational database is a data structure used to either store or reference data.

Most of the major database engines offer the same set of major database object types:

1. Tables
2. Indexes
3. Sequences
5. Synonyms

4. Database Server

• Database Server instance contains multiple databases
• Database contains multiple Tables
• Table contains multiple records (rows and columns)

5. Table and Record

• A Table in a Relational Database is a predefined format of rows and columns that define an entity.
• Each column contains a different type of attribute and each row corresponds to a single record
• Each Table is provided with a name.

Example: Table name: Students

1001VenkatAbcd, xyz9876989890
1002RamyaAsdf, ghj8888887676
1003BashaErt, yuio767890990
6. What is DBMS?

• A Database management System is software designed to assist in maintaining and utilizing a large collection of data.

• The alternative to using a DBMS is to store the data in files and write application-specific code to manage it.

Using a DBMS to manage data has many advantages:

• Data Independence
• Efficient Data Access
• Data Integrity and security
• Data Administration
• Concurrent Access and Data Recovery

7. Types of Database Management System

1. Hierarchical DBMS
2. Network DBMS
3. Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)
Example: Oracle, MS SQL Server, MySQL, DB2, etc…
4. Non-Relational Database Management System
Example: MongoDB, Apache Cassandra, Redis, Couchbase, and Apache HBase.

8. What are the types of databases?

1. SQL/Relational databases
2. NoSQL/Non-Relational databases
3. Cloud databases
4. Object-oriented databases
5. Centralised database.
6. Distributed database.
7. Personal database.
8. Commercial database.

9. What is Big Data?

Big Data is a collection of data that is huge in volume, yet growing exponentially with time. It is data with so large size and complexity that none of the traditional data management tools can store it or process it efficiently. Big data is also data but with huge size.

Types of Big Data:

1. Structured data
2. Unstructured data
3. Semi-structured data

SQL Language Elements

1. Identifiers:
Names of Database Objects such as Tables, Views, Columns etc…

2. Data Types:
Define the type of data that is contained by a Column

3. Constants:
Symbols that represent specific data types

4. Operators:
Perform Arithmetic, Comparison, and Logical Operations

5. Functions: Built-in Functions to perform specific operations

6. Clauses:
Constituent components of statements and queries.

7. Expressions:
Produce scalar values, or tables containing of columns and rows of data.

8. Queries:
Retrieve the data based on specific criteria, this an important element of SQL.

9. Statements Etc…

Create – It is a Command

Oracle Database Engine

Create Database gcreddyabc – It is a Statement

Create Database gcreddyabc – It creates a Database called gcreddyabc in Oracle RDBMS

MS SQL Server Database Engine

Create Database gcreddyabc – It create a Database called gcreddyabc in MS SQL Server RDBMS

Use/Practice SQL

SQL is used to communicate with databases, it is the Standard Language for Relational Database management Systems.

Database Engine is required to use/practice SQL Commands/Queries, we can use any Database Engine either Oracle, MySQL or MS SQL Server etc…

MS SQL Server:
MS SQL Server is a Commercial Software but Microsoft providing Free Edition also.

Microsoft SQL Server Express Edition

Download and Install MS SQL Server Express Edition
(Windows 7 – MS SQL Server 2014 Express Edition,
Windows 10 – 2014 or 2016 Express Edition)

After In Editor,
Write SQL statements and Execute.

SQL Syllabus
SQL Queries for Software Testers
SQL Step by Step Tutorial – Full Course for Beginners
Manual Testing Tutorial
Java Tutorial
Python Tutorial
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