Introduction to Cybersecurity

Introduction to Cybersecurity, Need for Cybersecurity, CIA Triad, Introduction to Cryptography, Types of Hacking, and Types of Cybersecurity Framework.

We have several areas in Information Technology (IT),
Software Development,
Software Testing,
Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning (AI & ML), 
Data Science,
Internet of Things (IoT),
Cloud Computing,
Cybersecurity, Etc,

Cybersecurity is the most critical area in Information Technology due to digital data security & confidentiality.

Introduction to Cybersecurity

1. What is Cybersecurity?
2. Why is Cybersecurity important?
3. Cyber Security Goals
4. Types of Cyber Security Threats
5. Cyber Safety Tips

1. What is Cybersecurity?

Cybersecurity is also known as information technology (IT) security, refers to a set of techniques used to protect the integrity of networks, programs, and data from attack, damage, or unauthorized access.


The technique of protecting internet-connected systems such as computers, servers, mobile devices, electronic systems, networks, and data from malicious attacks is known as cybersecurity.

We can divide cybersecurity into two parts one is cyber, and the other is security. Cyber refers to the technology that includes systems, networks, programs, and data. Security is concerned with the protection of systems, networks, applications, and information.

2. Why is Cybersecurity important?

Today we live in a digital era where all aspects of our lives depend on the network, computer and other electronic devices, and software applications.

All critical infrastructure such as the banking system, healthcare, financial institutions, governments, and manufacturing industries use devices connected to the Internet as a core part of their operations.

Cyber-attack is now an international concern that hacks the system, and other security attacks could endanger the global economy. Therefore, it is essential to have an excellent cybersecurity strategy to protect sensitive information from high-profile security breaches.

3. Cyber Security Goals

Cyber Security’s main objective is to ensure data protection. The security community provides a triangle of three related principles to protect the data from cyber-attacks. This principle is called the CIA triad.

We can break the CIA model into three parts: Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. It is actually a security model that helps people to think about various parts of IT security.

Confidentiality is equivalent to privacy that avoids unauthorized access of information.

Integrity ensures that the data is authentic, accurate, and safeguarded from unauthorized modification by threat actors or accidental user modification.

Availability makes the information to be available and useful for its authorized people always.

4. Types of Cyber Security Threats

A threat in cybersecurity is a malicious activity by an individual or organization to corrupt or steal data, gain access to a network, or disrupts digital life in general.

The cyber community defines the following threats available today:

1. Malware

Malware means malicious software, which is the most common cyber attacking tool. It is used by the cybercriminal or hacker to disrupt or damage a legitimate user’s system.

The important types of malware are viruses, spyware, and Trojans.

2. Phishing

Cybercriminals send malicious emails that seem to come from legitimate resources. The user is then tricked into clicking the malicious link in the email, leading to malware installation or disclosure of sensitive information like credit card details and login credentials.

3. Man in the Middle Attack

Man in the Middle (MitM) attack occurs when cybercriminals place themselves between a two-party communication. Once the attacker interprets the communication, they may filter and steal sensitive data and return different responses to the user.

4. Denial of Service Attack

Denial of Service attacks aims at flooding systems, networks, or servers with massive traffic, thereby making the system unable to fulfill legitimate requests.

5. SQL Injection

A Structured Query Language (SQL) injection attack occurs when cybercriminals attempt to access the database by uploading malicious SQL scripts. Once successful, the malicious actor can view, change, or delete data stored in the SQL database.

6. DNS Attack

A DNS attack is a cyberattack in which cybercriminals exploit vulnerabilities in the Domain Name System (DNS). The attackers leverage the DNS vulnerabilities to divert site visitors to malicious pages (DNS Hijacking) and exfiltrate data from compromised systems (DNS Tunneling).

7. Zero-day Exploit

A Zero-day Exploit refers to exploiting a network vulnerability when it is new and recently announced — before a patch is released and/or implemented.

8. Password Attack

Passwords are the most widespread method of authenticating access to a secure information system, making them an attractive target for cyber attackers. By accessing a person’s password, an attacker can gain entry to confidential or critical data and systems, including the ability to manipulate and control said data/systems.

9. Cross-site Scripting

A cross-site scripting attack sends malicious scripts into content from reliable websites. The malicious code joins the dynamic content that is sent to the victim’s browser. Usually, this malicious code consists of Javascript code executed by the victim’s browser but can include Flash, HTML, and XSS.

10. Internet of Things (IoT) Attacks

While internet connectivity across almost every imaginable device creates convenience and ease for individuals, it also presents a growing—almost unlimited—number of access points for attackers to exploit and wreak havoc. The interconnectedness of things makes it possible for attackers to breach an entry point and use it as a gate to exploit other devices in the network.

5. Cyber Safety Tips

1. Update software and operating system: The most popular safety measure is to update the software and O.S. to get the benefit of the latest security patches.

2. Use anti-virus software: It is also useful to use the anti-virus software that will detect and removes unwanted threats from your device. This software is always updated to get the best level of protection.

3. Use strong passwords: It is recommended to always use long and various combinations of characters and symbols in the password. It makes the passwords are not easily guessable.

4. Do not open email attachments from unknown senders: The cyber expert always advises not to open or click the email attachment getting from unverified senders or unfamiliar websites because it could be infected with malware.

5. Avoid using unsecured Wi-Fi networks in public places: It should also be advised not to use insecure networks because they can leave you vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks.

6. Backup data: Every organization must periodically take backup of their data to ensure all sensitive data is not lost or recovered after a security breach. In addition, backups can help maintain data integrity in cyber-attack such as SQL injections, phishing, and ransomware.

Manual and Automated Testing Tutorials 

1. Manual Testing Tutorial
2. Selenium Tutorial
3. Java Tutorial
4. Python Tutorial
5. SQL Tutorial
6. Manual Testing Video
7. Selenium Training Videos
8. Java Video Tutorial
9. Python Video Tutorial
10. SQL Video Tutorial
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