Web Environment Fundamentals

Web Environment Fundamentals, Web Knowledge for Software Testers, Webpage design, Web servers, Application servers, and Database servers.

Web Environment Fundamentals for Manual Testers and Automated Testers to conduct Web Application Testing.

Know about Basics of Web Browsers, HTML, XML, Client-side scripting, Server-side scripting, Web servers, Application Servers, and Database Servers.

Web Environment Knowledge for Beginners

Browser – Tool for displaying the web applications

HTML – Web page design

XML – Data Transporter

Flash – For Enhancing the Web UI

JavaScript – Client-side validation – Client side script Ex: JavaScript

VBScript – Server-side validation – Server-side Script Ex: VBScript

Java / C#.Net – Programming – EDP (Electronic Data Processing)

Tomcat – Web Server

ASP/JSP – Container

WebLogic – Application Server

Oracle – Database Server


Application: Online Banking System

  1. Login to the application as a customer – Client-side scripting validation
  2. Getting a response from the server – Server-side Scripting validation.
  3. Data Processing – Programming – Java/C#
  4. Web Server – IIS/Tomcat/Java Web Server – (Processing Client-side & Server-side requests)
  5. Application Server – COM+, WebLogic, WebSphere, JBoss, etc… (Interactions with the distributed applications/ other systems)
  6. Database Server – Storing and Maintenance of Data (Ex: MS SQL Server, Oracle, MySQL, SyBase, IBM – DB2, DB/400, etc.

Web Elements / HTML Elements and Actions

1. Text Link – It Redirects
2. Edit box – It takes Input
3. Button – It submits
4. Text box – It takes Input
5. Text – Display
6. Text Area – It takes Input
7. Image – Display
8. Image Link – It Redirects
9. Image Button – It submits
10. Dropdown box – Select an Item
11. Combo box – Select an Item / Enter an Item (Dropdown box + Edit Box)
12. List box – Select one or more items
13. Radio Button – Select an option
14. Check box – Check/Uncheck an option
15. Web Table/HTML Table – It displays data in a tabular format
16. Frame – A section of a Web page
17. Text/Error message/Help message/confirmation message, etc., – Is for providing information
(h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6, paragraph tags)

Date Picker
Mouse hover
Inline elements –


HTML tags are like keywords define that how a web browser will format and display the content.

When a web browser reads an HTML document, the browser reads it from top to bottom and left to right. HTML tags are used to create HTML documents and render their properties. Each HTML tags have different properties.

All HTML tags must enclosed within < > these brackets. Every tag in HTML perform different tasks.

HTML Text Tags

<p>, <h1>, <h2>, <h3>, <h4>, <h5>, <h6>, <strong>, <em>, <abbr>, <acronym>, <address>, <bdo>, <blockquote>, <cite>, <q>, <code>, <ins>, <del>, <dfn>, <kbd>, <pre>, <samp>, <var> and <br>

HTML Link Tags
<a> and <base>

HTML Image and Object Tags
<img>, <area>, <map>, <param> and <object>

HTML List Tags
<ul>, <ol>, <li>, <dl>, <dt> and <dd>

HTML Table Tags
table, tr, td, th, tbody, thead, tfoot, col, colgroup and caption

HTML Form Tags
form, input, textarea, select, option, optgroup, button, label, fieldset and legend

Important Web Terms

A programming interface (API) that allows web browsers to download and execute Windows programs. (See also Plug-In)

In web terms: The starting point or ending point of a hyperlink.

ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
An organization that creates standards for the computer industry. Responsible for the ANSI C standard

ADO (ActiveX Data Object)
A Microsoft technology that provides data access to any kind of data store.

ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line)
A special type of DSL line where the upload speed is different from the download speed.

A set of pictures simulating movement when played in series

An open-source web server. Mostly for UNIX, Linux, and Solaris platforms

A computer program to locate files on public FTP servers

API (Application Programming Interface)
An interface for letting a program communicate with another program. In web terms: An interface for letting web browsers or web servers communicates with other programs.

In web terms: the method used to verify the identity of a user, program, or computer on the web.

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
A set of 128 alphanumeric and special control characters used for computer storing and printing of text. Used by HTML when transmitting data over the web.

ASP (Active Server Pages)
A Microsoft technology allowing the insertion of server executable scripts in web pages

Binary Data
Data in machine-readable form.

In web terms: A link to a particular website, stored (bookmarked) by a web user for future use and easy access.

Term to describe a user’s movement across the web, moving from page to page via hyperlinks, using a web browser. (See Web Browser)

In web terms: A web browser or web server feature which stores copies of web pages on a computer’s hard disk.

Online text-based communication between Internet users.

CGI (Common Gateway Interface)
A set of rules that describes how a CGI program communicates with a web server.

CGI Program
A small program that handles input and output from a web server. Often CGI programs are used for handling forms input or database queries.

In web terms: The communication and separation of workload between a web client and a web server.

In web terms: A mouse click on a hyperlink element (such as text or picture) on a web page which creates an event such as taking a visitor to another web page or another part of the same page.

Communication Protocol
A standard (language and a set of rules) to allow computers to interact in a standard way, Examples are IP, FTP, and HTTP

A method of reducing the size (compress) of web documents or graphics for faster delivery via the web

Information from a web server, stored on your computer by your web browser. The purpose of a cookie is to provide information about your visit to the website for use by the server during a later visit.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
A W3C recommended language for defining style (such as font, size, color, spacing, etc.) for web documents.

Data is stored in a computer in such a way that a computer program can easily retrieve and manipulate the data.

Database System
A computer program (like MS Access, Oracle, and MySQL) for manipulating data in a database.

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
An Internet standard protocol that assigns new IP addresses to users as need.

DHTML (Dynamic HTML)
A term commonly to describe HTML content that can change dynamically.

Dial-up Connection
In web terms: A connection to the Internet via telephone and modem

DNS (Domain Name Service)
A computer program running on a web server, translating domain names into IP addresses.

DNS Server
A webserver running DNS.

DOM (Document Object Model)
A programming model for web page objects. (See HTML DOM and XML DOM)

Domain Name
The name that identifies a website. (like gcreddy.com)

To transfer a file from a remote computer to a local computer. In web terms: to transfer a file from a web server to a web client. (see also Upload).

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
An Internet connection over regular telephone lines, but much faster. Speed may vary from 128 kilobit per second, up to 9 megabit per second.

DTD (Document Type Definition)
A set of rules (a language) for defining the legal building blocks of a web document like HTML or XML.

Dynamic IP
An IP address that changes each time you connect to the Internet. (See DHCP and Static IP)

E-mail (Electronic Mail)
Messages sent from one person to another via the Internet.

E-mail Address
The address used for sending e-mails to a person or an organization. The typical format is username@hostname.

E-mail Server
A web server dedicated to the task of serving e-mail.

To convert data from its original form to a form that can only be read by someone that can reverse the encryption. The purpose of encryption is to prevent unauthorized reading of the data.

A type of local area network (see LAN)

Software that acts as a security filter that can restrict types of network communication. Most often used between an individual computer (or a LAN) and the Internet.

A vector-based multimedia format developed by Macromedia for use on the web.

In web terms: A part of the browser screen displaying a particular content. Frames are often used to display content from different web pages.

Web development software for the Windows platform, Developed by Microsoft

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
One of the most common methods for sending files between two computers.

FTP Server
A web server you can logon to, and download files from (or upload files to). Anonymous FTP is a method for downloading files from an FTP server without using a logon account.

A computer program for transferring (and reformatting) data between incompatible applications or networks.

GIF (Graphics Interchange Format)
A compressed format for storing images developed by CompuServe. One of the most common image formats on the Internet.

Helper application
In web terms: A program helping the browser to display, view, or work with files that the browser cannot handle itself. (See Plug-In).

The number of times a web object (page or picture) has been viewed or downloaded. (See also Page Hits).

Home Page
The top-level (main) page of a website. The default page displayed when you visit a website.

Trojan Horse
Computer program hidden in another computer program with the purpose of destroying software or collecting information about the use of the computer

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
HTML is the language of the web. HTML is a set of tags that are used to define the content, layout and the formatting of the web document. Web browsers use the HTML tags to define how to display the text.

HTML Document
A document written in HTML.

HTML DOM (HTML Document Object Model)
A programming interface for HTML documents.

HTML Editor
A software program for editing HTML pages, With an HTML editor you can add elements like lists, tables, layout, font size, and colors to a HTML document like using a word processor. An HTML editor will display the page being edited exactly the same way it will be displayed on the web (See WYSIWYG).

A form that passes user input back to the server.

The same as an HTML Document.

Code to identify the different parts of a document so that a web browser will know how to display it.

HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)
The standard set of rules for sending text files across the Internet. It requires an HTTP client program at one end, and an HTTP server program at the other end.

HTTP Client
A computer program that requests a service from a web server.

HTTP Server
A computer program providing services from a web server.

HTTPS (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure)
Same as HTTP but provides secure Internet communication using SSL. (see also SSL)

A pointer to another document, Most often a pointer to another web page, A hyperlink is a synonym for a hotlink or a link, and sometimes called a hypertext connection to another document or web page.

An extension to hypertext to include graphics and audio

Hypertext is the text that is cross-linked to other documents in such a way that the reader can read related documents by clicking on a highlighted word or symbol. (see also hyperlink)

IAB (Internet Architecture Board)
A council that makes decisions about Internet standards. (See also W3C).

IIS (Internet Information Server)
A web server for Windows operating systems. Developed by Microsoft

IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)
A standard communication protocol for retrieving e-mails from an e-mail server. IMAP is much like POP but more advanced.

A private (closed) Internet, running inside a LAN (Local Area Network).

IP (Internet Protocol)

IP Address (Internet Protocol Address)
A unique number identifying every computer on the Internet (like

IP Number (Internet Protocol Number)
Same as an IP address.

IP Packet
See TCP/IP Packet.

IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
An Internet system that enables users to take part in on-line discussions.

IRC Client
A computer program that enables a user to connect to IRC

IRC Server
An Internet server dedicated to the task of serving IRC connections.

ISAPI (Internet Server API)
Application Programming Interface (See API) for Internet Information Server (See IIS).

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
A telecommunication standard that uses digital transmission to support data communications over regular telephone lines.

ISP (Internet Service Provider)
Someone that provides access to the Internet and web hosting.

The most popular scripting language on the internet, developed by Netscape

JPEG (Joint Photographic Expert Group)
The organization that promotes the JPG and JPEG graphic formats for storing compressed images.

Graphic formats for storing compressed images.

Microsoft’s version of JavaScript

JSP (Java Server Pages)
A Java-based technology allowing the insertion of server executable scripts in web pages. Mostly used on Linux, UNIX and Solaris platforms

In web terms: A word used by a search engine to search for relevant web information.

In database terms: A word (or index) used to identify a database record.

LAN (Local Area Network)
A network between computers in a local area (like inside a building), usually connected via local cables. See also WAN.

Meta Data
Data that describes other data.

Meta Search
The method of searching for metadata in documents.

Meta Tags
Tags inserted into documents to describe the document.

Page Hits
The number of times a web page has been visited by a user.

Page Impressions
The same as Page Hits.

Page Views
The same as Page Hits.

PDF (Portable Document Format)
A document file format developed by Adobe. Most often used for text documents.

In web terms: The computer’s operating system like Windows, Linux, or OS X.

An application built into another application. In web terms: A program built in (or added) to a web browser to handle a special type of data like e-mail, sound, or movie files. (See also ActiveX)

PPP (Point to Point Protocol)
A communication protocol used for a direct connection between two computers.

Proxy Server
An Internet server dedicated to improving Internet performance.

A hardware (or software) system that directs (routes) data transfer to different computers in a network.

A multimedia file format created by Apple.

In web terms: The action when a web page automatically forwards (redirects) the user to another web page.

A collection of statements written in a Scripting Language.

Scripting Language
In web terms: A simple programming language that can be executed by a web browser or a web server. See JavaScript and VBScript.

Writing a script

Software that you can try free of charge, and pay a fee to continue to use legally.

A format (technology) developed by Macromedia for embedding multimedia content in web pages.

Search Engine
A computer program used to search and catalog (index) the millions of pages of available information on the web. Common search engines are Google and AltaVista.

Semantic Web
A web of data with a meaning in the sense that computer programs can know enough about the data to process it.

SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language)
An international standard for markup languages. The basis for HTML and XML

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
A standard communication protocol for sending e-mail messages between computers.

SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)
A standard protocol for letting applications communicate with each other using XML.

Addressing a web page or an e-mail with a false referrer. Like sending an e-mail from a false address

Computer software is hidden in a computer with the purpose of collecting information about the use of the computer

SSL (Secure Socket Layer)
Software to secure and protect website communication using encrypted transmission of data.

A method of sending audio and video files over the Internet in such a way that the user can view the file while it is being transferred.

In web terms: Notifications or commands written into a web document. (See HTML Tags)

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol)
A collection of Internet communication protocols between two computers. The TCP protocol is responsible for an error free connection between two computers, while the IP protocol is responsible for the data packets sent over the network.

TCP/IP Packet
A “packet” of data sent over a TCP/IP network. (data sent over the Internet is broken down into small “packets” from 40 to 32000 bytes long).

UDDI (Universal Description Discovery and Integration)
A platform-independent framework for describing services, discovering businesses, and integrating business services using the Internet.

To transfer a file from a local computer to a remote computer. In web terms: to transfer a file from a web client to a web server. (see also Download).

URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
A web address. The standard way to address web documents (pages) on the Internet

In web terms: A visit to a website. Commonly used to describe the activity for one visitor of a web site

In web terms: A visitor of a website. Commonly used to describe a person visiting (viewing) a web site.

VPN (Virtual Private Network)
A private network between two remote sites, over a secure encrypted virtual Internet connection (a tunnel).

VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)
A programming language to allow 3D effects to be added to HTML documents.

W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)
The organization responsible for managing standards for the WWW.

WAN (Wide Area Network)
Computers connected together in a wide network, larger than a LAN, usually connected via phone lines. See also LAN.

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
A leading standard for information services on wireless terminals like digital mobile phones.

Web Applet
A program that can be downloaded over the web and run on the user’s computer. Most often written in Java.

Web Client
A software program used to access web pages. Sometimes the same as a Web Browser, but often used as a broader term.

Web Browser
A software program used to display web pages.

Web Document
A document formatted for distribution over the web. Most often a web document is formatted in a markup language like HTML or XML.

Web Host
A web server that “hosts” web services like providing website space to companies or individuals.

Web Hosting
The action of providing web host services.

Web Page
A document (normally an HTML file) designed to be distributed over the Web.

Web Server
A server is a computer that delivers services or information to other computers. In web terms: A server that delivers web content to web browsers.

Web Server Error
A message from a web server indicating an error. The most common web server error is “404 File Not Found”.

Web Services
Software components and applications running on web servers, The server provides these services to other computers, browsers or individuals, using standard communication protocols

Web Site
A collection of related web pages belonging to a company or an individual

Web Spider
A computer program that searches the Internet for web pages. Common web spiders are the one used by search engines like Google and AltaVista to index the web. Web spiders are also called web robots or wanderers.

Web Wanderer
See Web Spider

A character used to substitute any character(s). Most often used as an asterix (*) in search tools.

WML (Wireless Markup Language)
A standard for information services on wireless terminals like digital mobile phones, inherited from HTML, but based on XML, and much stricter than HTML.

WML Script
Scripting language (programming language) for WML.

A computer virus that can make copies of itself and spread to other computers over the Internet.

WSDL (Web Services Description Language)
An XML-based language for describing Web services and how to access them.

WWW (World Wide Web)
A global network of computers using the internet to exchange web documents. (See also Internet)

XHTML (Extensible Hypertext Markup Language)
HTML reformulated as XML. XHTML is the latest version of HTML. Developed by W3C.

XPath is a set of syntax rules (language) for defining parts of an XML document. XPath is a major part of the W3C XSL standard.

XML (Extensible Markup Language)
A simplified version of SGML especially designed for web documents, developed by the W3C.

XML Document
A document written in XML.

XML DOM (XML Document Object Model)
A programming interface for XML documents developed by W3C.

XML Schema
A document that describes, in a formal way, the syntax elements and parameters of a web language, Designed by W3C to replace DTD

XSD (XML Schema Definition)
The same as XML Schema.

XSL (Extensible Style sheet Language)
A suite of XML languages developed by W3C, including XSLT, XSL-FO and XPath.

XSL-FO (XSL Formatting Objects)
An XML language for formatting XML documents. A part of XSL developed by W3C.

XSLT (XSL Transformations)
An XML language for transforming XML documents. A part of XSL developed by W3C.

A compressing format for computer files. Commonly used for compressing files before downloading over the Internet. ZIP files can be compressed (ZIPPED) and decompressed (UNZIPPED) using a computer program like WINZIP.

Web Testing Checklist

Web Testing Interview Questions

Manual Testing, Selenium, Java, Python, and SQL Videos and Documents.

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3. Java Tutorial

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5. SQL Tutorials

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